There might be some good ways to start PostgreSQL on Windows, but I remember the following dirty way to do that.
You need to run the executable 'pg_ctl' that should be present in the bin folder of PostgreSQL installation. Use CD command to go to the bin folder of the installation and then type the command highlighted below.
C:\Program Files\PostgreSQL\9.5\bin>pg_ctl start -D "C:\Program Files\PostgreSQL\9.5\data"
The server will start running and you will see the following message on the terminal.
C:\Program Files\PostgreSQL\9.5\bin>2016-10-21 17:26:10 MDT LOG: redirecting log output to logging collector process
2016-10-21 17:26:10 MDT HINT: Future log output will appear in directory "pg_log".